Kaydani: Sunnah Acts of Prayer -Pt.7

The specific are ten:
1- The Imam reciting the takbirat aloud[1]
2- The followers starting with the Imams takbir[2]
3- Following the Imam in all of his actions[3]
4- Tawwudh[4]
5- Reciting it silently[5]
6- The tasmiyah after it[6]
7- Reciting it silently[7]
These four[8] are for the Imam and the one praying alone (munfarid)
8- Reciting amin silently for them both, and for the follower in the loud prayers[9]
9- The Imam reciting Tasmi’ and the follower reciting tahmid[10], the one praying alone combines between both in all prayers[11]
10- Spreading out the left foot to sit upon it whilst raising the right when sitting for men, women adopt the tawarruk position[12]
[1] Such that those praying behind the Imam can hear him, due to the need of informing them of having entered the prayer and when the Imam as moved from one posture to another. Tabyin al-Haqaiq (1/107), al-Jawhar
[2] Meaning the one praying behind the Imam uttering the takbir at the same time as the Imam. This is according to Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him). His two students held the view that the one praying behind the Imam utters the takbir after the Imam has made the takbir. In any case both methods have been declared as correct, the difference is with regards to which of the two is preferable. Al-Maraqi (p.257-258)
[3] Meaning following the Imam without lagging behind.
[4] It is to be read silently. The one praying behind the Imam does not recite the tawwudh as the Imam will be reciting it on his behalf. Sharh al-Wiqayah (p.148)
[5] This applies to all those from whom it is recommended to read it. What is meant is that it should only be audible to the one reading and no one else. Al-Jawhar
[6] Meaning the tasmiyah after the tawudh, with the tasmiyah being read at the beginning of every unit before the fatihah silently. This is the view of the authors of al-Wiqayah (p.147), Kanz al-Daqaiq (p.107), Nur al-Idah (p.118). Another group of hanafi scholars held it to be compulsory (wajib) such as al-Zaylai in al-Tabyin (1/194), Ibn Wahban, al-Maqdisi and al-Halabi in Ghunya al-Mustamali (p.306), al-Tahtawi in Hashiyah al-Maraqi (p.260) and al-Luknawi in Ihkam al-Qantarah (p.167-168)
[7] Meaning not reciting the basmalah out loud.
[8] Meaning the tawaudh and reading it silently, and the tasmiyah and reading it silently. Al-Jawhar
[9] Meaning uttering Amin silently for both the Imam, one praying in congregation and one praying alone in the loud prayers.
[10] The Imam utters the tasmi’ aloud whilst those praying behind him utter the tahmid silently. Fath Bab al-Inayah (1/255), Hashiyah al-Tahtawi (p.262)
[11] Meaning that the person praying alone reads both the tasmi’ and tahmid. Hashiyah al-Tahtawi (p.262)
[12] A man spreads out his left foot and raises his right foot when sitting for the tashahhud. A woman adopts the tawaruk position which is her sitting on her posterior placing one thigh on the other, her left leg coming out towards her right hand side from under her right knee, she adopts this posture because this is more concealing for her. Tabyin al-Haqaiq (1/107)

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