Wudu with Evidences (Hanafi School)

A recent, and maybe even positive influence of the salafi school has been the focus on the study of hadith. The editing of works with copious and precise referencing of narrations alongside a discussion or analysis of the chains of transmission has gained increasing currency among many editors.

When at University, whilst trying desperately to be a hanafi despite not having any “evidences” to back up my madhabs position, in the midst of the volumes of fiqh al-sunnah and glossy salafi works, I could have done with some basic works which outlined the hanafi schools position along with the corresponding evidence.

It was after I left University that I compiled this small article setting out the evidences for wudu (the prayer has been dealt with in enough detail by Sheikh Riyadh al-Haq in his book) Hope it might be of some benefit to someone out there.

Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Raheem

Sahih Sifah Wudu al-Nabi (S)

The authentic description of the wudu of the Prophet (s)

The prerequisite for offering prayers is to be in the state of purity. This is achieved by making wudu(ablution). If one does not make wudu then the prayer is invalid.

The Quran states:

O you who believe! When you rise up for salah, wash your faces, and your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles’[1]

The Messenger of Allah (s) said :

The key to paradise is salah, and the key to as-salah is wudu[2]

One should begin by making the intention in ones heart that: I am making wudu to become pure. As the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

Verily actions are by intentions and there is for everyone only what he intended[3]

If one does not make intention then the wudu is still valid, although one should try to make it.

One should then say ‘Bismillahi Walhamdulillahi’ (I begin in the name of Allah and all Praise is due to Allah) as the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

There is no wudu for him who does not mention Allah’s name upon it[4]

Wash both hands up to the wrists 3 times, as many of the companions saw the Prophet (s) do this[5]

Use a miswak for cleaning the teeth and then gargle the mouth 3 times as the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

If I did not consider it a burden on my Ummah, I would have commanded them to use siwak at the time of every wudu[6]

And if one does not have miswak then one can use ones fingers[7]

Then snuff water up into the nostrils three times with the right hand and clean the nose with the left hand, as Abu Wail bin Shaqiq bin Salamah said:

I saw Ali bin Abi Talib and Uthman bin Affan make wudu thrice, and they washed their mouths (separately) from snuffing watter, and they both said; This is how we saw the Messenger of Allah (s) make wudu[8]

When one is fasting care must be taken not to exert in snuffing the water as the Prophet (s) said:

If you make wudu then exert in gargling and snuffing the water into your nose, except when you are fasting[9]

Then wash your face three times. Was from where the hairline usually begins to below the chin, and from one earlobe to the other taking care to wash the area between ear and beard. As Abdullah bin Zayd bin Asim was asked how the Messenger of Allah (s) performed wudu, he demonstrated it wherein he:

Inserted his hands (in the vessel) and brought water out and washed his face three times..[10]

Then make khilal of the beard by running water through the beard with the fingers as Uthman said:

The Prophet (s) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard[11]

And Anas bin Malik narrates that:

The Prophet (s) when he made wudu used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said: This is what my Lord – The great and exalted – has ordered me to do’[12]

The wash both arms beginning with the right up to and including the elbow three times. As Uthman was observed by Hurmaan bin Uthman that:

He washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way[13]

Then make khilal of the fingers by passing the left hand between the right hands fingers and vice versa. As the Prophet (s) said:

If you make wudu then wipe (between) your fingers[14]

The moisten the hands and fingers and pass them over the head once. As Abdur Rahman bin Laylah said:

I saw Ali making wudu……and he wiped his head once, and then he said: this is how the Messenger of Allah (s) made wudu[15]

And Ibn Abbas saw the Messenger of Allah (s) making wudu…and he said:

He wiped his head and ears with one wipe[16]

Then insert the fingers into the ears and wipe behind the ears with the inner part of the thumb.

Then wipe with the back of the hands the back of the neck as Wail bin Hujr reports that:

The Messenger of Allah (s) wiped his head and his neck[17]

Then wash both feet including the ankles 3 times, rubbing in between the toes, starting with the right as Uthman (ra) when demonstrating the wudu of the Prophet (s):

Then he washed his right foot to the ankles 3 time and his left foot to the ankle 3 times[18]

And as al-Mustaurad said:

When the Prophet (s) made wudu he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger[19]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[20]:

It is not hidden that rubbing will become obligatory (fard) if the water does not reach parts of the limbs (that need to be washed) except by it, and if they reach all parts of the limbs without rubbing then it is recommended (mustahabb)

One should also rub whilst washing the various limbs as Abdullah bin Zaid narrates that:

The Prophet (s) made wudu with two thirds of a mudd (of water) and rubbed over his forearms[21]

If one does make wudu out of order as described above then the wudu is still valid, although it is sunnah to follow the order as Miqdam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said:

I came to the Prophet (s) with water for wudu, so he washed his hands three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears-their outsides and insides-and washed each of His feet three times[22]

And that a man came to the Prophet (s) and asked about a man who made ghusl from janabah but water did not reach some parts of his body, the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

Wash that area and then pray[23]

One should wash the body parts one after the other leaving no time gap between them, however if one does wash some parts of his body at different times then wudu is valid as:

Ibn Umar (ra) urinated within the market, then made wudu and washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a funeral (janazah) so he entered the masjid then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it[24]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said::

Al-Nawawi said in Sharh al-Muhadhab (1/29): It is a Saheeh report and the deduction from it is correct, as Ibn Umar performed this in the presence of those attending the funeral prayer and no one condemned him for it.

One should begin with the right hand side such as the right arm, right foot etc when making wudu as Aishah (ra) said:

The Messenger of Allah (s) used to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs[25]

And as the Prophet (s) said:

If you make wudu then begin with the right[26]

One should take care not to be wasteful with with water when making wudu as Anas (ra) said:

The Prophet (s) used to make wudu with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa or up to five mudds[27]

And from among the bad habit which leads to this is to be immersed in conversation with friends and others whilst making wudu, such that a great amount of water is wasted due to our minds being focused on other than the wudu, the scholars have explained that it is disliked to talk when making wudu and that one should focus on making dhikr.

Sheikh al-Mubarakpuri comments[30] that the majority of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no specific fixed amount (of water) needed for wudu, which cannot be exceeded or diminished from.

Imam al-Nawawi said[31]:

The Muslims are agreed that the amount of water that is sufficient for wudu and ghusl is not fixed, but one can make use of a little and a large (amount)

One should wash also wash more than the required area in wudu as the Messenger of Allah said:

My nation will with bright streaks of light from the traces of wudu[32]

Abu Hurairah the said:

If he can lengthen his streak of light he should do so[33]

Abu Zarah reported that when Abu Hurairah made ablution he washed his arms above his elbows and his feet up to his calves, he was asked why do you do this? He said:

This is the extent of the embellishment[34]

It is sunnah to wash each body part three times, one may also wash them once or twice as it has been reported that the Prophet (s) washed each body part once as in the hadith of Anas (ra) who said that:

The Prophet (s) made wudu washing each body part once[35]

Abdullah bin Zaid said that:

The Prophet (s) made wudu (washing each part) twice[36]

And in the hadith of Uthman (ra) informs us that

The Prophet (s) made wudu washing each body part three times[37]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[38]:

Its evidence…is that (washing the body parts) in wudu three times is the best, and it is the sunnah of the Prophets, and (to wash the body parts) twice is the medium way, and to wash the body parts once is rare…and when washing three times was His (s) sunnah and the sunnah of the Prophets (as) it is apparent that He (s) would consistently perform it, except rarely as is established from Him limiting to washing once or twice.

And it is unlawful to exceed washing the body parts three times due to the lengthy hadith in which the Prophet (s) made wudu washing each body part three times and then said:

This is how wudu is done, whoever exceeds this has done wrong…[39]

Then make duaa after wudu, such as:

Ashadu al-lailaha illalah wahdahu la sharikala wa ashadu anna muhammad abduhu wa rasulu[40]

And :

Subhanaka allahumma wa bi hamdik la ilaha illa anta wahdaka la sharika lak astaghfiruka wa atub ilaik.[41]

Then one should dry their face and limbs after making wudu as Qais bin Sa’d (ra) said:

The Prophet (s) came to visit us….The Prophet (s) made Ghusl after which we gave him a cloth with which he wiped his body[42]

BENEFIT: In the Fatawa Sirajiyyah (p.75) it is mentioned that to wash the hands is sunnah before and after eating, and in the Fatawa Qadi Khan (P.781) it says that the hands should be washed before eating but should not be dried with a towel as opposed to washing hands after eating when they should be dried.


Wudu is broken by anything that comes out of the two private parts such as urine stool and semen as Safwan bin Asal said:

The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) used to order us not to remove our leather socks (khuffs) for three days and nights [when on a journey] except in the case of major impurity (janaabah). However [one could perform ritual ablution including wiping over the socks due to] sleeping, excreting or urinating[43]

Sleeping can also break ones wudu, but only in certain instances. If one sleeps lying down on the back or laying on the sides the wudu has been broken as the Prophet (s) said:

The one who sleeps in sajda does not have to make wudu until he lies down, as if he lies down his posterior (?) will become loose[44]

And as the Prophet (s) said:

The eye is the drawstring of the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudu[45]

And if someone falls asleep sitting or standing or in sajda in salah their wudu in intact as Abu Hurayrah said:

The one who is…..asleep, and the one who is asleep standing and the one who is asleep in sajdah (is in) wudu, until they lie down (when asleep) and if they lie down then they make wudu[46]

NOTE: a woman falling asleep in sajdah will have to remake her wudu as the posture of a woman in sajda is different to that of a man, and allows wind to escape.

If a person in salah laughs, loud enough to be heard by those near him then his wudu has broken and his salah is invalid, he must remake wudu and pray again. As Abu Musa said:

The Prophet (s) was praying when a man entered the masjid that had poor eyesight and fell into a hole in the masjid, and many of those praying laughed, and the Messenger of Allah (s) ordered those who had laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[47]

And a similar incident when the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

Whoever laughed out loud then let him repeat his wudu and prayer[48]

And a similar narration is reported from the Prophet (s) ordering those who laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[49]

And that the Messenger of Allah ( s) said:

He who laughed out loud in his prayer let him repeat his wudu and prayer[50]

Those wishing to read a lengthy and rigorous discussion on the authenticity of the above narrations are referred to Ilaa al-Sunan (1:132-144)

If one spits out blood then the wudu is broken if the predominance of the spittle consists of blood, as Ibn Sirin said to a man who spat out blood:

If the majority of the spit is blood then make wudu[51]

Similarly if one has a nosebleed that flows from the wound wudu is broken as:

Saeed ibn al-Musayyib had a nose bleed whilst praying so he went to the house of Umm Salamah wife of the Prophet (s), so he made wudu and did not speak and went back to build upon his prayer[52]

And as Tawus said:

If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer he should leave and make wudu and build upon what remains of his prayer[53]

Ibn Abd al-Barr said:[54]

It is well known from the madhab of Umar (ra) that it is obligatory to make wudu from a nosebleed if it is flowing, and likewise every flowing blood from the body, and similar to this is reported from Ali and Ibn Masud

Vomiting a mouthful will break the wudu as:

If a person has a nosebleed or vomits,…he should leave and make wudu[55]

And as Ali (ra) said:

If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer or vomits he should make wudu and not speak and pray the remainder of his salah[56]


Touching ones private parts does not break wudu as the Messenger of Allah (s) was asked about a mans touching his private part. Should he make wudu? He (s) said:

And is it except a part of him?[57]

Imam al-Tahawi said:[58]

Some of the Companions from whom wudu for touching the private parts is reported, the opposite is also reported…And we do not know anyone from the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) who gave the fatwa for wudu from it except Ibn Umar, and he differed in this by the majority of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (s).

For a more extensive discussion see Ilaa al-Sunan (1:161:172)

Touching a woman with or without desire does not break wudu as Aisah (ra) says:

The Messenger of Allah prayed and I was lying in front of Him as in front of janazah except that he when he…he would touch me with his foot[59]

Allamah al-Sindi said:[60]

And it is known that it was a touching without desire, and so the author used it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudu, as for touching with desire-its proof is of wudu not breaking, as the original is of wudu not breaking until a proof for breaking is produced by one who holds this view….and as for the words of Allah Taala: ‘Or if you touch the women’ (al-Nisa:43) the scholars of tafsir said it is marital relations and this is reported from our Master Abdullah bin Abbas.

Ibn Kathir said:[61]

It is authentically reported from more than one source that Abdullah Ibn Abbas held this opinion.

As for doubt about the wudu breaking, that is if one cannot recall the wudu having broken the wudu is intact. There is a hadith of the messenger of Allah (s) which is often misunderstood, He (s) said:

If one of you feels something in his stomach and he is not sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not-then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell.[62]

This does not mean that if one knows that one has passed wind but that one has not heard or smelt anything that wudu is intact. Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani explaining this said:[63]

Therefore there is agreement (ijma) that if no noise or smell but passing wind is definitely known even then wudu will break. The proof for this is in Abu Dawud from which we know that He (s) said this to one suffering from whispering

The hadith referred to is that the Messenger of Allah (s) said:

Shaitan will come to one of you…and he thinks that he broke wudu and he didn’t, and if he finds this….[64]

With regards to the issue of doubt al-Shawkani said:[65]

Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim: this hadith is a foundation (asl) from the foundations of Islam, and a great principle from the principles of the deen, and that things are adjudged to remain upon their original basis until the opposite of it is established and the incidental doubt does not harm it. And from the issue in which the hadith is mentioned, and that is the one who is not sure of taharah and has doubt of havi
ng broken it, he adjudged to remain on taharah, and there is no difference between the doubt occurring whilst in the salah or occurring outside the salah. And this is our madhab and the madhab of the majority of the scholars from the salaf and khalaf….And as for if he is sure of breaking wudu and thinks he might have taharah, it is obligatory for him to make wudu according to the consensus of the Muslims.

Al-Haskafi (?) said:[66]

And if he is sure of taharah and has a doubt of breaking wudu or the opposite, the situation of which he sure is relied upon.

[1] Al-Maidah:6. The scholars have derived from this verse that the bare minimum for wudu to be achieved is to wash the above mentioned parts, however limiting oneself to this is not recommended

[2] Mishkat al-Masabih (1/39)

[3] al-Bukhari (1, 6684) Muslim (1907)

[4] Abu Dawud (1/24) and others, the authenticity of the hadith has been questioned by Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani in Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/231), however there are other authentic narrations with the same meaning mentioned in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/43). Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani concludes that the hadith is taken for tasmiyah to be recommended due to (i) many of the scholars weakening the hadith of tasmiyah with the precise wording above (ii) many of the companions describing the Prophet (s) manner of making wudu and none have mentioned the saying of tasmiyah (iii) al-Nimawi in Athar al-Sunan (P.30) cites a hadith from Mujam al-Saghir al-Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (s) said; O Abu Hurairah if you make wudu then day Bismillah and Alhumdulillah…’ it was declared Hasan (well authenticated) by al-Haithami in Majma al-Zawaid (1/220). The point of note is that alhumdulillah is mentioned which no scholar regards as wajib, thereby indicating tasmiyah is sunnah. (iv) The hadith is interpreted to refer to the perfection of wudu

[5] Fath al-Bari (1/255) Muslim (3/121)

[6] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/44): reported by Malik, Ahmad (2/400), al-Nasai, and it was declared Saheeh (rigorously authenticated) by Ibn Khuzaimah, and al-Bukhari (4/128) mentioned it in a taliq form as mentioned in Bulugh al-Maram

[7] See Sheikh Al-Uthmani’s discussion surrounding this in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/48) onwards

[8] Ibn al-Sakan in his Saheeh as was stated by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir, al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/31)

[9] Nail al-Awtar (1/178) of Imam al-Shawkani who cites Abu Hasan bin al-Qattan saying: This is Saheeh

[10] Muslim (1/123)

[11] al-Tirmidhi (31) and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (151,152) as in Bulugh al-Maram

[12] al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (3000) Abu Dawud (145), al-Haithami declared its narrators trustworthy in Majma al-Zawaid (1/96)

[13] al-Bukhari and Muslim

[14] al-Tirmidhi (38) he said the hadith was Hasan Saheeh, it was also declared Saheeh by al-Baghawi, Ibn al-Qattan, al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaimah

[15] Abu Dawud (115) the sanad is Saheeh as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar

[16] Abu Dawud (1/19) al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/155): al-Darqutni weakened it, but Abul Hasan bin al-Qattan replied to him and said: That which he weakened it by is not a weakness, the hadith is either saheeh or Hasan

[17] Majma al-Zawaid (1/232) al-Shawkani in Nail al-Awtar cites some narrations in proof of this and comments that the totality of the narrations can be taken to be relied upon. Al-Qinnawji in Badur Ilahlah (P.28) writes that Ibn al-Qayyims and al-Fairozabadi’s opinion that nothing with regards to this is saheeh is incorrect, as the hadith of wiping the neck due to the number of chains of narrations is Hasan

[18] al-Bukhari and Muslim

[19] al-Tirmidhi (4) who said: This hadith is gharib, we do not know it except from the hadith of Ibn Lahiah. Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir: But it is followed up by Laith bin Sa’d and Umru bin al-Harith, it is reported by al-Baihaqi and Abu Bishr al-Dawlabi, and al-Darqutni in Gharaib Malik from the chain of transmission of Ibn Wahb from three, and it was declared saheeh by Ibn Qattan, see Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)

[20] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)

[21] Ahmad (4/390) and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (118) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)

[22] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/88) that its isnad is authentic and it is reported by al-Diya in al-Mukhtarah

[23] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (10/10561) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/273)

[24] al-Muwatta (66) declared Saheeh by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/91)

[25] al-Bukhari (1/29) Abd al-Razzaq (1/37) and Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/9)

[26] Reported by the four and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (176) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)

[27] Muslim (1/156) and others

[28] See Maarif al-Sunan (1/207)

[29] See his notes to Nur al-Idah entitled al-Wishah (P.31)

[30] See Tuhfah al-Ahwadhi (1/61)

[31] See Sharh Saheeh Muslim (1/148)

[32] Muslim (246) al-Bukhari (150,136)

[33] Imam al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1/39) discusses these being words of Abu Hurairah and not the words of the Messenger of Allah (s), also see Sheikh al-Uthmani’s discussion in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/98-100) surrounding this

[34] Muslim (250)

[35] al-Bukhari (157)

[36] al-Bukhari (158)

[37] al-Bukhari (159)

[38] See Ilaa al-Sunan (1/73)

[39] Abu Dawud (135) al-Nasai (1/88) Ibn Khuzaimah (174) and Ibn Majah with Saheeh chains of narration as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar

[40] Muslim (1/122)

[41] al-Bannuri in Maarif al-Sunan (1/205) said: al-Nawawi said: reported by al-Nasai in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah in a marfu form and al-Haithami in his Zawaid (1/239) in a marfu form from Abu Saeed al-Khudari and He said its narrators are Saheeh except that al-Nasai after citing it in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah said: this is a mistake as the correct (version is that it is) mawquf

[42] al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/194): The narrators of Abu Dawud are Saheeh

[43] al-Nasai (127) al-Tirmidhi (96) and Ibn Khuzaimah (196) who declared it Saheeh, see Bulugh al-Maram (P.11) of Hafidh Ibn Hajar

[44] Ahmad (1/256) Abu Yaala (4/2487) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/132) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/247)

[45] Abu Dawud (203) Hafidh Ibn Hajr in Talkhis al-Habir comments that it was declared Hasan by al-Mundhiri, Ibn al-Salah and al-Nawawi

[46] al-Baihaqi (1/122) Hafidh Ibn Hajar declared its isnad to be good in Talkhis al-Habir (1/44)

[47] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (2/82) that its narrators were trustworthy and there was a difference regarding some of them

[48] Imam Muhammad in Kitab al-Athar (1/421) Jawhar al-Naqi (1:42) Abu Hanifah in his Musnad (1/247) al-Darqutni (1/167) al-Baihaqi (1/146) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/134) This hadith by the chain of the Imam has come in musnad and mursal (form) and the narrators of Kitab al-Athar are well known and trustworthy

[49] Abd al-Razzaq (2/376) Nasb al-Rayah (1/50) Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/135) declares it to be Saheeh and its narrators to be that of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Nimawi said in Athar al-Sunan (1/36) that its isnad is mursal qawi

[50] al-Baihaqi, Jawhar al-Naqi (1/43) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/139): Ibn al-Jawzi weakened it due to Baqiyyah being mudallis, and perhaps he heard it from some of the weak ones but removed their names, Ibn al-Turkmani and al-Zaylai (1/62) answered this by saying that Baqiyyah is truthful (saduq), and has clarified hearing, and that a truthful mudallis if he clarifies this the allegation of tadlis is removed from him. I say: The rest of its narrators are trustworthy, as Ibn al-Jawzi’s silence indicates…and the hadith is Hasan and it has supporting narrations

[51] Abd al-Razzaq (1/146) declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkumani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1/140)

[52] Declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkmani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi as stated by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)

[53] Ibid

[54] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)

[55] Abd al-Razzaq (2/339) al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/35)

[56] Ibn al-Turkmani declared it Saheeh in Jawhar al-Naqi, it was also declared Hasan by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/275)

[57] Abu Dawud (182) al-Nasai (159) Ibn Majah (483) al-Tirmidhi (85) Ahmad (4/22,23) Ibn Khuzaimah (34) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/163) it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hibban, Ibn al-Madini said; It is the best of the hadith of Busrah, Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir (1:46): It was declared Saheeh by Amr bin Ali al-Fallas and he said: It is the most established of the hadith of Busrah and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hazm

[58] See Sharh Maani al-Athar (1/47)

[59] Declared Saheeh by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/48) and al-Zaylai in Nasb al-Rayah (1/38)

[60] See Taliq al-Nasai (1/38)

[61] See Ghayah al-Maqsud (1/179)

[62] Muslim (361)

[63] Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/293)

[64] al-Bazzar (171) Kashf al-Astar (281) al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (1:242): reported by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (11556,11948) with a portion of (the hadith), and al-Bazzar with similar to it, and its narrators are those of the Saheeh

[65] Summarized in Ilaa al-Sunan (1:173) by Sheikh al-Uthmani citing from Nail al-Awtar (1/197,198)

[66] Durr al-Mukhtar (1/156)

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